by Scott Humor
Being in the present, by changing the past, you can change the future. It’s possible not just change the past, but to invent the past for a person or entire nation, or even for entire mankind. It’s possible to give people different gods, different cultures, to make people forget wars that took place, and to “remember” plagues that never happened. It’s possible to create people that never existed down to their portraits painted by “medieval” artists and their artifacts in the museums. It’s possible to create entire churches, with evidence of their existence written into medieval parchments. The modern science is one of the vehicles to perform the task of changing the past, to substitute our past for something else. Since no one pays attention, the scientists can use the same set of data to blame, for example, first China and later Russia for the Black Death that took place in Europe, they say, as many times as they see it fit.
Russian language has multiple expressions for karma and a well deserve negative outcome of someone’s evil actions. Among them one of the most popular is “писец” or a Polar Fox, as in the expression “пришел писец” – a Polar Fox Cometh, also “Полный Писец” meaning “a Full or Total Polar Fox,” or even “a Blue Polar Fox.” An online dictionary of colloquialisms of Russian language defines “писец” as 1. an end, failure, fiasco. 2. an expression similar to wow, this is it, this is the end. 3. euphemism from expletive name of a female anatomy.
For those not familiar with Russian nature, The Arctic fox or Vulpes lagopus, is also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, that is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra.
For centuries luxurious polar fox fur was one of the most popular and valued items along with sable, beaver, and red fox, on the shopping list of European moneyed classes, especially during the Little Ice Age across the European Peninsula of Eurasian continent. The Little Ice Age was a period between about 1300 and 1870 during which Europe and North America were subjected to much colder winters than during the 20th century.
The fur trade was one of Russians main trades at the time. Needless to say that that animal hides and furs sold by Russian merchants in Europe weren’t raw, but processed. The process of processing raw pelts is called fur dressing: “The first step in processing raw pelts is dressing. The dressing of furs involves several steps, the exact number of which is determined by the particular fur being dressed. Generally speaking, a fur is cleaned, softened, fleshed (extraneous flesh is removed), and stretched. The skin is tanned by a process called leathering. Many furs are then dyed, bleached, or tipped (dyeing the guard hair only) using various compounds called fur bases.” if you believe the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Add to this a fact that prior to the modern animal farm breeding, the prime source of fur was hunting. The fur animals were hunted at winter times because that’s when they acquire the best quality fur. Hunters in Russia would keep pelts they harvested outside solid frozen and that’s how they transported them to the furriers, masters in fur dressing, who were also engaged in the manufacture and repair of fur and leather products.
Processed pelts were valuable and were stored and transported by merchants with great care.
Now, if you happen to own any item of clothing made with fur: a pair of boots, a coat, a pair of gloves, a fur hat, anything at all, inspect them carefully and see if you can find a flea living in there.
Go, and do this now. After you have done your inspection, come back and read the rest.
I bet that even if you own a dog or a cat, you won’t find fleas living in your fur coat. Fleas don’t live in clothes. Nor do they stay on people after biting.
Everything I wrote above are proven, well known, politically neutral facts. It’s also a common sense knowledge.
A few years ago, it’s hard to say when exactly, the collective West entered the reflection of reality better known as a collective psychosis, defined by a rejection of common sense and hating of Russia being its main staples.
European science has not escaped this rot, either.
In November 2018, an online science magazine PNAS published an article titled, “Integrative approach using Yersinia pestis genomes to revisit the historical landscape of plague during the Medieval Period.” The research was conducted by a team of scientists from the University of Oslo: Amine Namouchi, Meriam Guellil, Oliver Kersten, Stephanie Hänsch, Claudio Ottoni, Boris V. Schmid, Elsa Pacciani, Luisa Quaglia, Marco Vermunt, Egil L. Bauer, Michael Derrick, Anne Ø. Jensen, Sacha Kacki, Samuel K. Cohn Jr., Nils C. Stenseth and Barbara Bramanti. Contributed by Nils C. Stenseth, October 19, 2018 (sent for review July 26, 2018; reviewed by Bruce M. S. Campbell and Ludovic Orland, published at the PNAS, Nov. 26, 2018.
The preamble to the article states that: “Contrary to previous studies, the authors built an integrative approach aiming at interpreting all ancient genomes of the Second plague Pandemic with regards to their historical context.”
A new hypothesis:
While the origin of the Black Death remains unclear, in their PNAS paper, the authors advance a new hypothesis that relates the onset of the Black Death with the arrival of a considerable variety of fur in the ports of the Black Sea by 1340 from trade routes starting from Sarai.”
Why the fur trade and not the silk trade that followed the same route and, as we see above, the same merchants traded both, fur and silk? Because, the fur trade is associated with Russia and the task of this team is to change the history of Europe to fit the political objective that the Orthodox Christian Russia is the root of ALL evil.
See, how the Oslo University team goers about their task.
They reject an obvious idea that plague never left Europe and was dormant in people’s dwellings, soil, water and animal population. No, they say. Europe was somehow completely cleansed after each plague, and “(ii) plague was repeatedly introduced to Western Europe from a reservoir located in Eastern Europe/Central Asia (1, 2, 10) and spread via commercial trade routes and human movement.”
They even draw a map with a plague reservoir located not just in Asia, but in Russia.
Fig. 1. Geographic locations of previously and presently described ancient genomes. Map of previously and presently described ancient genomes. The red circles represent the locations of previously described ancient genomes. Yellow circles represent ancient genomes described in this study. For the newly described ancient genomes, the indicated years are discussed in Results and Discussion. Numbers in parentheses indicate number of ancient genomes included from each site.
The proof Russians did it
Then they write a few statements using their own previous “research” as a reference point. More will be said about this previous research a bit later.
1.” 4. As previously reported, two Bronze Age samples from Bateni and Kytmanovo (Russia) ancient genomes cluster with all other known Second Plague Pandemic genomes.”
- “The strain isolated from Bolgar (7) was placed one SNP (T3806677C) further on branch 1 from the clones of Bergen op Zoom and is characterized by one additional specific SNP (G3643387T). The Y. pestis clone found in Bolgar, which had previously been attributed to 1362+ (7), could now be more precisely attributed to the outbreaks, which started in 1364 in Nizhnii Novgorod (Fig. 4) and swept throughout all towns in Russia until 1366, killing up to 100 people per day (35). During an excavation of the marketplace of Bolgar, which was active from the 1340s/1350s and was destroyed by a fire in the 1360s/1370s, archaeologists recovered a range of trade goods, in particular artifacts originating from Flemish towns (Tournai, Ypres, etc.) (36, 37), which constitutes direct evidence for trading contacts between the Low Countries and the Volga region. Therefore, it cannot be excluded, that, as reported in previous studies (7), plague was imported to Bolgar from Western Europe, where it had established in a reservoir from the Black Death. “
Fig. 4. "Schematic representation of the connection between the fur trade routes and the spread of plague during the early stage of the Second Plague Pandemic (14th century). This simplified map shows cities strategically situated along the fur trade routes (indicated as a white line). The city of Novgorod (Russia) has played a central role in fur export to cities like Hamburg and Lübeck. The regions highlighted in orange represent known modern plague reservoirs. The darker orange delimits the region in which we believe secondary plague reservoirs were established before the Black Death. The red dots represent the locations of all known ancient Y. pestis genomes. Black lines, Silk Road; dark-blue lines, maritime trade routes."
“Here, we considered historical evidence and propose that the phylogeny of the plague strains of the 14th century (branch 1) may be also explained by independent introductions on the fur trade routes, a complex network of interconnected maritime, riverine, and overland routes into Western Europe. During the second half of the 14th century, Bolgar and Novgorod (Russia) (Fig. 4) had established an economic dominance as major fur trade centers. Fur was historically an important trade good, which was widely commercialized on established itineraries all over Eurasia. Starting with the second half of the 13th century, Novgorod had gained access to the Western European markets through the Hanseatic League, which it eventually became part of (35). The flourishing of the League in the 14th century permitted Novgorod to export big consignments of fur to London via Lübeck and Hamburg (35, 38). Thus, the three specific SNPs found in London-ind6330 might have been acquired over the course of a more complex transmission chain, similar to Abbadia San Salvatore (Fig. 3B), since the territories of the Hanseatic League were also affected by plague during the pestis secunda (39).”
After all but accusing of Novgorod republic in bringing the Black plague to Europe with its fur, but denying that it was Europe that infected Novgorod population, the authors make a step back, “However, as plague also struck many Mediterranean ports between 1357 and 1361 (e.g., Alexandria in 1357–1358 and 1361, Venice in 1359–1361, Genoa in 1360–1361, and Ragusa/Dubrovnik in 1361 and Constantinople) (40), it becomes difficult to determine precisely the point of entry and the routes of transmission of the pestis secunda (40). However, a reintroduction from outside seems most likely both from historical (5) and climatic (10) evidence.”
So, read into this whatever you want.
From the Novgorod republic, the Oslo researches moved south-east.
“On the other hand, the Black Death in Western Europe may also be due to importations on the fur trade network. During the 14th century, Russia was under the domination of the Golden Horde, which had imposed new regulations on the fur trade, and merchants from Bolgar had started importing their fur from the “Land of Darkness,” a region speculated to be situated on the Kama river (41). After exporting it to Sarai (Southern Volga region), which is placed in the easternmost part of Europe, fur was distributed to all parts of Eurasia along with other goods. Remarkably, in the 1340s, there was a significant change that impacted the routes of the fur trade. In fact, a new mainland route connecting Sarai, Tana, and Caffa had been established with the support of the Golden Horde. Traded goods were then further exported from Caffa on the Black Sea trading network by the Genoese (41). Historians have remarked that a considerable variety of fur had started to appear in the ports of the Black Sea by the 1340s (41). These events seem to coincide chronologically with the onset of the Black Death, whose origins remain unclear before its arrival from Caffa.”
You see. British colonists in 18th-century America gave Native Americans smallpox-infected blankets, and Russians, the Oslo University team claims, gave the Europeans Black Plague infected fur.
The Oslo scientists ignore the Justinian Plague, which began in AD 541, considered the first pandemic in recorded history sweeping across three continents and most likely originated in Africa. It doesn’t fit their “Russian fur” theory.
Their key witness is Ibn al-Wardī, who never been to Russia and either plagiarized his book, or wrote what Arab merchants were saying about the “Land of Darkness,” where sun never appeared and strange people would kill everyone who ventured to come there.
Russian historians explain this Arabic myth about the “Land of Darkness:” “Why were the Arabs so frightened, who could attack them? According to some researchers, the “Land of Darkness” was probably an invention of local merchants who lived in Bulgar and Perm. To avoid trade competition and to scare off foreign merchants from the main areas of fur trade and keep the trade routes for themselves, local merchants invented terrifying stories about people-monsters and cannibals that lived In the far North. From Arabs these fantastic messages migrated later in books of writers of the Western Europe.”
Now, so called “Western scientists” use this myth as historical and geographical facts. Just imagine the sheer depravity of scientific thought in modern Europe!
This is what the Oslists (from Oslo) wrote:
“Suggestively, Ibn al-Wardī, an Arab historian, who died of plague in Aleppo (Syria) in 1349, described how returning merchants from Crimea, attributed the beginning of the “contagion” to the “Land of Darkness,” in which the pestilence had been present for 15 years before reaching the West (3). Without having visited the West-Ural region from which fur was imported to the Volga centers, the Arab merchants likely just meant that the source of the Black Death was associated with the fur routes, placed somewhere before Sarai (seen from Caffa), where plague was present before 1347 (3), and hence probably a region next to the Caspian Sea—an area with well-established plague reservoirs today (Fig. 4). From this region, plague may have been transported on the fur trade network to the whole of Europe, not only during the Black Death, but also later, with (possibly) independent goods deliveries to Bergen op Zoom, London, and Bolgar.”
“All things considered, the hypothesis that Y. pestis reached Europe through multiple introductions during the Middle Ages through different routes, including the fur trade, appears very plausible, at least during the Second Plague Pandemic.”
In short, the group of authors from the Oslo University in their paper written for the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America magazine, claims that Russia infected Europe with bubonic plague using its fur trade as a biological weapon of mass destruction. How Russians did this? They infected and kept reinfection Europeans with their furs! Without getting sick and dying.
In their PNAS paper the research team doesn’t provide any information on how Yersinia pestis could travel from the Volga region and from Novgorod. Earlier suggestions that the Oriental rat flea infected with Yersinia pestis traveled with grains and other food shipment. The Golden Horde merchants and Russian merchants traveled on horse driven carriages. It’s hard to imagine them packing rats mixed with their precious cargo of furs.
In their estimate, the researchers completely ignored the climate, multiple wars, mass migrations, and massive slave trade across Europe. They also ignore the absence of data that would show that Russian fur merchants experienced higher than average death rate from the Bubonic Plague.
The research claim using a single tooth obtained in Bolgar, a town and the administrative center of Spassky District, Russia, located on the left bank of the Volga River, 140 kilometers from Kazan, and about 30 km downstream from its confluence with the Kama River.
Somehow, the researchers made a direct connection between a town near Kazan located in a southern part of Russia, and in the XIV century being under rule of nomadic tribes, and the city of Novgorod. The research ignores 1,565.5 kilometers between two places that even today takes 20 hours drive via М5 federal highway. Reading the research, anyone not familiar with Russian geography and history might think that the researchers talk about the same location, despite of a fact that one place is in Asia and another is located in Europe. The research ignores also the fact that Kazan and Bolgar became a part of Russia in 1552, full two hundred years after the Pestis Secunda that occurred from 1357 to 1366.
Consider also that the “research” is peppered with expressions of plausible deniability like “it seems,” “hypothesis,” “origin unclear,” and “might also” and so on.
Nevertheless, the popular science sources immediately posted their articles and reviews to dumb down the original. And that’s when the original intentions of the Oslo University team have become especially obvious.
This is what the Infection Control Today writes:
“Just after the Black Death period, the authors confirm the so-called pestis secunda that occurred from 1357 to 1366.”
“The group of a DNA that belongs to the pestis secunda includes samples from London, Bolgar-City (Russia) and the newly presented two a DNA from Bergen-op-Zoom. Four point mutations separate the group of a DNA of the Black Death from the group that belongs to the pestis secunda. Corroborated with historical data, we claim that the pestis secunda might also be the result of the introduction of Y. pestis along the fur trade routes established between Novgorod (Russia) and Western Europe through the Hanseatic League”, adds Namouchi.”
See, Fur Trade May Have Spread the Plague Through Europe published by the Infection Control Today that states: “from 1347 to 1353, plague spread through whole Europe like wildfire, leading to the decline of the European population by 30 percent. After this dramatic period and for more than 350 years, Europe knew a series of recurrent devastating outbreaks of Y. pestis. ”
“A new hypothesis: While the origin of the Black Death remains unclear, in their PNAS paper, the authors advance a new hypothesis that relates the onset of the Black Death with the arrival of a considerable variety of fur in the ports of the Black Sea by 1340 from trade routes starting from Sarai.”
“In fact, during the same period a new mainland route connecting Sarai, Tana and Caffa had been established with the support of the Golden Horde, observes Amine Namouchi and colleagues. The Golden Horde was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.”
“Corroborated with historical data, we claim that the pestis secunda might also be the result of the introduction of Y. pestis along the fur trade routes established between Novgorod (Russia) and Western Europe through the Hanseatic League”, adds Namouchi.”
“The investigation behind the new scientific paper was done in the context of the research project MedPlag, led by the paleogenetist and CEES researcher Barbara Bramanti. In 2013, she received an Advanced Grant from the European Research Council (ERC). The grant is being used to investigate, using DNA technology, the plague and other potential human diseases caused by medieval microbes.
“Integrative approach using Yersinia pestis genomes to revisit the historical landscape of plague during the Medieval Period.”
Finely, rats are vindicated. Russians did it.
Trying to solve a problem with the mechanism of transitions, in February 2018 same group of researches published another paper title Human ectoparasites and the spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic.
An Abstract to the research posted on the US government website states that Human ectoparasites, such as human fleas (Pulex irritans) or body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus), caused the rapidly spreading epidemics. that was the source of the spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic.
“Our results support that human ectoparasites were primary vectors for plague during the Second Pandemic, including the Black Death (1346-1353), ultimately challenging the assumption that plague in Europe was predominantly spread by rats.”
The Oslo University researchers freely admit that “In 1941, plague-infected body lice and human fleas were found on septicemic patients during an outbreak in Morocco, indicating that humans can transmit the disease to lice and human fleas. However, the transmission from body lice and human fleas to humans has not yet been documented.”
Trying to bend the facts and biological science to their political needs, the Oslo University researches published a paper in which they admitted in one sentence that the transmission of the Bubonic plague from body lice and human fleas to humans has not yet been documented, and most likely biologically impossible.
The group uses the Mathematical Modeling with “a susceptible–infectious–recovered (SIR) model for plague transmission with a human ectoparasite vector,” despite of the obvious biological studies that the virus is not capable of being transmitted from body lice and human fleas to humans. Ignoring biology of the species, the researchers from Oslo just used “the best-fitting model for each outbreak.”
For the data of death from the bubonic plaque in Moscow 1772 the researchers used a book Bubonic Plague in Early Modern Russia, by John T. Alexander, first published in 1980. The book lists the Ottoman empire, as a destination where infection arrived, and Norwegian and house rats as a source of infection.
The Oslo researchers ignore the fact that the Bubonic Plague of 1771-1772 in Moscow took place 420 years after the Second Pandemic in Europe that took place in1346-1353.
The different plague outbreaks took place first in Europe, then in Russia: Givry (1348), Florence (1400), Barcelona (1490), London (1563), Eyam (1666), Gdansk (1709), Stockholm (1710), Moscow (1771), Malta (1813).
Authors admit that “since we considered nine outbreaks over several centuries, we were limited to using simple models that could be applied systematically. Consequently, these models did not account for local conditions that can affect disease transmission, like war, famine, immunity, and public health interventions. Additionally, we did not model mixed transmission routes, and this makes it difficult to fully assess the contribution of pneumonic plague, which commonly occurs during bubonic outbreaks.”
Bizarrely, in 2016 another group of scientists from Germany listed the same set of evidence from the same locations as an evidence that the Black Plague traveled along the Silk Way from China. See an article published in the Science magazine in April 2016 How Europe exported the Black Death
“The medieval Silk Road brought a wealth of goods, spices, and new ideas from China and Central Asia to Europe. In 1346, the trade also likely carried the deadly bubonic plague that killed as many as half of all Europeans within 7 years, in what is known as the Black Death.”
“At the Society for American Archaeology meetings earlier this month in Orlando, Florida, researchers reported analyzing the remains of medieval victims in London; Barcelona, Spain; and Bolgar, a city along the Volga River in Russia. They determined that the victims all died of a highly similar strain of Yersinia pestis, the plague bacterium, which mutated in Europe and then traveled eastward in the decade following the Black Death.”
Turns out the European scientists can use the same alleged set of evidence, to completely different models of the past, and still remain respectable members of the scientific community.
Keep in mind that as the Germans so the Norwegians don’t mention each others’ research using the same data. Why? Because they need to create an appearance of two different sets of data that would explain why they came to two different conclusions. Since, this is all just propaganda, neither team would address this slippery issue.
Remarkably epic bullshit
One again, German researchers made the same error by placing the 14 century city near Kazan, where the remains in question were found, in medieval Russia despite the fact the settlement wasn’t a part of Russia and wasn’t populated by Russians for another two centuries. But not let the facts to stand in a way of the European science.
The Oslo University group don’t mention German research and represent their tests as original. But, the Germans in 2016 also didn’t mention the Oslo university team leader’s original discovery made earlier in 2014.
The Germans used the data to claim that the Bubonic Plague was brought to Europe from China via the Silk Way, at the time when the OBOR was attacked by the Western media and governments.
Now, in 2018 same set of alleged “evidence” is used by the Norwegian team to attack historical trade with Russia at the time when Russia is trying to establish the trade with Germany and the rest of Europe, bypassing increasingly hostile Norway.
The leader of the Oslo University group is a paleogeneticist Barbara Bramanti. This how she described her “discovery” in 2014:
” -There are many “downs” in the laboratory. We can work for months without getting results. But when we finally do, it`s fantastic.
She experienced this rollercoaster when she was looking for the bacterium Yersinia pestis that caused the Black Death and other plagues. Bramanti and colleagues at the University of Mainz in Germany worked intensively on this for a whole year, without results. But one weekend she was not working an email dumped in from her assistant Stephanie Hänsch.
– She had found traces of Y. pestis in a tooth of a putative plague victim. It was a huge relief and joy. I had to open a bottle then, smiles Bramanti. But it was not enough for us: we obtained more teeth to get more and more information about those ancient bacteria and their evolution.” See “Exploring Black Death mysteries in a new ancient DNA-lab.”
I couldn’t find any indication that Bramanti’s “discoveries” were ever collaborated by independent Russian researchers, considering a general climate of fake and forged researches, as it was reported recently.
The Oslo University researchers also ignored a few common sense facts. Fleas don’t live in processed fur. The Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), also known as the tropical rat flea doesn’t live in the northern cold climate, since it requires a tropical/subtropical climate to pupate.
“Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a gram-negative, nonmotile, rod-shaped coccobacillus, with no spores. It is a facultative anaerobic organism that can infect humans via the Oriental rat flea. It causes the disease plague, which takes three main forms: pneumonic, septicemic and bubonic plagues.”
“The Oriental rat flea is a subtropical parasite. They prefer tropical and subtropical habitats and are rarely found in cold areas. The flea was first collected in Egypt by Charles Rothschild. Experimentally, it has been shown that the fleas flourish in dry climatic conditions with temperatures of 20–25 °C (68–77 °F). This species can act as a vector for plague, Yersinia pestis, Rickettsia typhi and also act as a host for tapeworms Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana. Diseases can be transmitted from one generation of fleas to the next through the eggs.”
The publication ordered by the PNAS magazine was supported by associated articles, as it’s always a case with any orchestrated influx of anti-Russia propaganda, published on the same day as the research itself. It went mostly unnoticed in Russia, since it’s impossible to translate, evaluate and reflect on massive amount of lies and disinformation that millions of Western institutions are able to generate every day.
Just two examples how the fake science information was spread for the common reader.
The article in the Consumer Health Day titled “Rats May Not Have Driven the Black Death Plague After All.” “But the new research, based on European death statistics for nine plague outbreaks spanning five centuries, suggests the much-maligned rat may not be to blame. Instead, “human ectoparasites” — meaning fleas residing on people, not rats — may have been the primary sources for spreading the illness, including the devastating Black Death of 1346 to 1353. The new research is “ultimately challenging the assumption that plague in Europe was predominantly spread by rats,” concluded Nils Stenseth, of the University of Oslo in Norway, and colleagues.”
Don’t blame the rats for spreading the Black Death. People — not rodents — may have spread the most famous plague in history. “The team calculated plague death rates from the 1300s to the 1800s for nine cities in Europe and Russia. Dean and her colleagues compared their model results to the patterns of real deaths. The model that assumed the disease was spread by human fleas and lice was the winner. The scientists published their findings January 16 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.”
Not a word that the research also mentions the absence of any scientific evidence that human fleas and lice can spread the plague. Nevertheless, this was published in January and February 2018.
In, November 2028, the Oslo team publishes its new hypothesis that Russian merchants were re-infecting Europe with the Black Plague for over five centuries.
There were also a few examples of popular dumb-down versions of that.
“Fur trade may have spread the plague through Europe” title of an article on the University of Oslo website. “Corroborated with historical data, we claim that the pestis secunda might also be the result of the introduction of Y. pestis along the fur trade routes established between Novgorod (Russia) and Western Europe through the Hanseatic League.”
In Russia, a sole publication addressing this research titled Plague of Western Russophobia, was by Yuri Gorodnenko who laments for the REN TV channel news that the further we go, the more absurd accusations are being levied against Russians.
Yury sees political roots growing out of this research. “The article declares Russians as the “culprits” of the most massive pandemic bubonic plague that arose in the XIV century. And this despite the fact that when it first appeared, Russia didn’t existed as a united country.
Moreover, the weekly magazine edited by a former Soviet science worker, actually accuses Russians in no less than an attempt to genocide entire mankind.”
Gorodnenko also suggests that this absurdity might be contributed by a persona of the Editor-in-Chief of PNAS, Natasha V. Raikhel. Born 73 years ago in Leningrad, she was a recipient of free higher education in the Leningrad University in the field of Plant Biology. Soil and Microbial Sciences. Raikhel immigrated to the US in 1978 due to her, as Wikipedia puts it, “Jewish heritage,” and apparently had seen her mission to get revenge on Russia by propagating most absurd Russophobic claims.
This publication in November 2018 was Raikhel’s last foray in this magazine.
Starting with January 1, the Russophobic science chair warmed up by Raikhel was taken by May R. Berenbaum. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) announces the appointment of May R. Berenbaum as Editor-in-Chief of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), the official journal of the Academy. Berenbaum will begin the editorship on January 1, 2019.
We will see soon if Berenbaum will present the scientific community with as much delusional, deranged and dysfunctional Russsophobia as her predecessor.
“Pisec” came upon the Western science, I mean the Polar Fox, of course.
Thanks for everyone who bought my books. Last month I got enough money to pay for my internet connection.